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otázky: je portapack a portapack revoluce? 2.**co je to single chanel video, co je CCTV a jmenujte 4 významé americké umělce, kteří pracovali v 70 letech s video kamerou a video instalací.


: The purpose of this lecture is to give a short introduction to the use of video in contemporary art, alternative news gathering, performance (1965 until the end of '70s). We look on experimental video practices that essentially found their place of expression and disclosure in museums, galleries and distribution channels, as opposed to movie theaters and television programs - i.e., as opposed to the mass media industry. The 'Sony portapak' camera was the first video tool which was available to visual artists, performers, activists, to be taken outside of the commercial TV studios to streets, homes or studios.


Mostly in USA (and Canada) occasionally as well West Europe and Japan. see:

Japanese Early Video Art

Early British Videoart

German Videoart


First genaration of video artists came from different backgrounds: mostly fine art, perfomance art, happening, political activists, electronic music, engineering..

Attempts to subvert mainstream broadcast TV nrt were made at the early stage of video art, especially at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. (Nam June Paik, Ant Farm [], Guerilla Tv T.R.Uthco, Raindance Collective, Wiloughby Sharp

Video artists dissociate themselves from mainstream cinema, television and fine art and experimental cinema, either because they are exploring new means and uses for moving image outside their original applications in the mass media industry, or because they are approaching both mass media narratives and the contemporary commodity art object in the gallery system from a critical point of view.


1965 - 1975

*'Portapack' - kompaktní kamera firmy SONY, která stála 1500 dolarů..poprve uvedena na trh firmou SONY v roce 1967 kdy Portapak byl první přenosný přístroj pro nahrávání video pásků. Prvni typ se jmenoval Sony CV-2400 Video Rover, a nabízel možnost jednomu člověku nahrávat video signál do úložného pole.

*“The first ”portable” video system, this two-piece set consisted of a large B&W camera and a separate record-only helical ½” VCR unit. It required a Sony CV series VTR to play back the video. Even though it was clunky and heavy, it was light enough for a single person to carry it around. However, it was usually operated by a crew of two - One shot the camera and one carried and operated the VCR part.”


*'live media' live media is a “real time” broadcast of multimedia data. In early video tapes and video installation usage of CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) was common. [] Closed-circuit_television

(v technickém kontextu typické pro práci s kompresovanými daty, například v síti internetu - nebo jiných sítí, nebo live media v kontextu umění, kdy dílo performance se děje, vzniká současné s jejím vnímáním, v “reálném čase”).

texts to read

'Surveying the First Decade: Anthology'/'Antologie První desetiletí videa, 1968-1980' Radikální vzorec komunikace pro přímou demokraci Chris Hill



[] surveying-first-decade-video-art

*úvod:Nejde jen o vznik nové formy, vytvořené pro nové obsahy, ale také o proměnu vztahu mezi čtenářem a literárním textem, mezi divákem a podívanou. Proměna tohoto vztahu byla podmíněna novými způsoby vnímání souvislostí mezi uměním (obecněji„znázorněním“) a skutečností … vhodnost a účinnost užitých nástrojů je zcela závislá na určitém historickém okamžiku a na „hypotézách“ uvnitř nichž se projeví.- Sylvia Harvey[1]


* a. kulturní působnost a nové technologie

* b.první kolektivy videoartu

* c.přístup do kabelové a komunitní televize

* d.Neviditelné dějiny - pohled na tehdejší činnost decentralizovaných médií

* e.Video a vytváření „skutečnosti“

* f.závěr - přehodnocení desetiletí

* poznámky

* Anthology

* kolofon


- first generation of video artists.

exhibitions, activities or events where videoart was presented

* event '9 Evenings', New York, 1965 by E.A.T.

* exhibition:The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age, Pontus Hultén, New York. MOMA, 1968, []

* exhibition Cybernetic Serendipity ICA,London, (1968),Cybernetic Serendipity:The Computer and the Arts. Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D.C.,1968

* exhibition: Tv as A Creative Medium at The Howard Wise Gallery, 1969, New York

* program TV 'The Medium Is The Medium' WGBH Boston Public Television (1969) Boston

* exhibition 'Information', The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1970, curated by Kynaston McShine.

* 'Videogalerie Schum', Düsseldorf, 1970 Gerry Schum



* 'Nam June Paik' born 1932 in Seoul. 1953–56 studies music, history, art history and philosophy at the University of Tokyo, where he writes a dissertation on Arnold Schönberg. Continues studies in Munich and Freiburg. In 1958 meets John Cage in Darmstadt and works with Karlheinz Stockhausen at the electronic music studio of Westdeutscher Rundfunk in Cologne. Becomes a member of the Fluxus movement. 1963 shows the first manipulated TV sets, in Wuppertal. 1964 moves to New York and becomes the first artist to make videotapes. During the 1970s and 1980s his work is widely exhibited all over the world. 1978 appointed professor at the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf. 1987 elected to membership of the Akademie der Künste, Berlin. Lived in New York and Florida.

'Button Happening' 1965, 2 min, b&w, silent

Button Happening is Nam June Paik's earliest extant videotape, and possibly his first tape ever. Recorded in 1965 on the day he acquired his first Sony Portapak camera, this previously unknown work has recently been rediscovered and restored. Recorded on computer tape, this technically fragile piece documents a single performance action — Paik buttoning and unbuttoning his jacket. A spirit of conceptual Fluxus humor underlies this seminal recording.


* 'Bruce Nauman' (In the studio)

'Pacing Upside Down' 1969, 56 min, b&w, sound

In this videotape, Nauman walks around the perimeter of a small square with his hands clasped high over his head. He then circles it in increasingly larger loops until he is out of camera range completely. Since the camera is inverted, he appears to be walking on the ceiling.

'Walking in an Exaggerated Manner Around the Perimeter of a Square' 1967-68, 10 min, b&w, silent, 16 mm film on video

In this silent film, Nauman walks around the perimeter of a large square marked off with masking tape. He shifts his hips exaggeratedly as he places one foot in front of the other, moving carefully around the square.

'Pinch Neck' 1968 in several of his films Nauman manipulates his flesh (see Pulling Mouth and Thighing). Here he pinches his neck as well as his cheeks and mouth. Related are a series of contemporaneous infrared photos by Jack Fulton for which Nauman posed, pulling his lips and cheeks into odd distortions. []

* 'Peter Campus':Three Transitions. 1973 The tape is one of the seminal works in video. In three short exercises, Campus uses basic techniques of video technology and his own image to create succinct, almost philosophical metaphors for the psychology of the self. In these concise performances, he employs video's inherent properties as a metaphorical vehicle for articulating transformations of internal and external selves, illusion and reality.

* Terry Fox Children Tapes 1974, 30 min, b&w, sound

Children's Tapes is a classic early video work, a seminal investigation that translates the aesthetics of minimalism, performance, perception and real time into the vernacular of the everyday. With ingenuity and wit, Fox constructs phenomenological dramas from the science of the quotidian. Suspense and surprise suffuse a series of anecdotal episodes that demonstrate basic physical phenomena.

* 'Joan Jonas': 'Left Side Right Side' 1972, 8:50 min, b&w, sound []

In this early work, Jonas translates her performance strategies to video, applying the inherent properties of the medium to her investigations of the self and the body. Jonas performs in a direct, one-on-one confrontation with the viewer, using the immediacy and intimacy of video as conceptual constructs. Exploring video as both a mirror and a masking device, and using her body as an art object, she undertakes an examination of self and identity, subjectivity and objectivity.

'Vertical Roll' 1972, 19:38 min, b&w, sound In a startling collusion of form and content, Jonas constructs a theater of female identity by deconstructing representations of the female body and the technology of video. Using an interrupted electronic signal — or “vertical roll” — as a dynamic formal device, she dislocates space, re-framing and fracturing the image. The relentless vertical roll, which repeats throughout the tape, disrupts the image by exposing the medium's materiality. Using her body as performance object and video as a theatrical construct, Jonas unveils a disjunctive self-portrait. []

* 'Steina' Lilith 1987, 9:12 min, color, sound In Lilith — a name that evokes biblical and mystical references — Steina alters and manipulates the face of a woman (painter Doris Cross) so that it is submerged within a natural and technological landscape. Employing the imaging techniques of focal plane shift (altering the depth of field) and frame “grabbing” (a succession of frozen images), she creates a constantly shifting visual field in which an image appears to exist in a constant flux of temporal and spatial planes.

* 'Ant Farm', Media Burn 1975-2003, 23:02 min, color, sound Media Burn integrates performance, spectacle and media critique, as Ant Farm stages an explosive collusion of two of America's most potent cultural symbols: the automobile and television. On July 4, 1975, at San Francisco's Cow Palace, Ant Farm presented what they termed the “ultimate media event.” In this alternative Bicentennial celebration, a “Phantom Dream Car”—a reconstructed 1959 El Dorado Cadillac convertible—was driven through a wall of burning TV sets. Ant Farm

* 'T.R. Uthco' The Eternal Frame 1975, 23:50 min, b&w and color, sound

T.R. Uthco was a San Francisco-based multi-media performance art collective that engaged in satirical critiques of mass media images and cultural myths, using theatricality and spectacle as strategies. Founded in 1970, T.R. Uthco staged irreverent, fabricated events, and produced video documents of its performances. Interweaving reality and illusion, truth and artifice, they parodied pop iconography, political symbolism and cultural mythology. []

* 'Raindance Collective' Founded in 1969 by Frank Gillette, Paul Ryan, Michael Shamberg and Ira Schneider, Raindance was a media collective that proposed radical theories and philosophies of video as an alternative form of cultural communication. Influenced by the theories of Marshall McLuhan and Buckminster Fuller, the collective explored the relation of cybernetics, media and ecology. From 1970 to 1974, Raindance published the seminal video journal, 'Radical Software'.

* 'Ira Schneider' - radicalsoftware. [] interview Remote control


* 1973 WGBH Boston Public Television program exploring the relatively new area of video art. The program highlights several video artists exploring the video medium and pushing its boundries, with a focus on artists working with video synthesizers.


* webportal on early video art


* what is video art


* Electronic Art Intermix


* Video Data Bank []

* MediaKunstNetz []

video art genres

* 1.'video-performance' document. [] Peter Campus, Joan Jonas, Bruce Nauman, etc



[]Dieter Daniels: strategies of interactivity

* 2. 'video-performance live' tv broadcasting, Public Access TV, Experimental TV Center. []

* 3. 'single monitor piece' - multiplied and distributed (videotape as a document, or as a artpiece)

EAI Archive - Circa 1971: Early Video & Film from the EAI Archive




In Europe, until c. 1970, when video recorders became available outside commercial and scientific institutions, artists’ concern with video was largely either theoretical and speculative or dependent on broadcast television as a foil and means of production. In the former Federal Republic of Germany, Gerry Schum (d 1974) developed the notion of a ‘Gallery on TV’, in which avant-garde artists could present their work in purely televisual terms, free from the distractions of physical artefacts or of programme narration or interpretation. The artists performed or directed activity for the camera, keeping in mind the eventual context of the television screen, creating not a film about the artist but a work by him or her. Schum produced two ‘TV Gallery’ compilations, Land Art (1968) and Identifications (1969). In 1970 he established the Videogalerie Schum in Düsseldorf, where he made and sold video-art tapes. In 1971 David Hall’s Seven TV Pieces appeared on Scottish Television, interrupting regular programmes without announcement or explanation. In each, the filmed event emphasized the physical presence of the television set with which it was viewed, as when the set appeared to fill with water, which then drained away at a totally unexpected angle. In subsequent video installations and tapes, Hall drew attention to the illusory nature of television images, placing video art in confrontation with broadcast television. []

some examples

* British Early Video Art



* Record-again /40 years of German Videoart []

* Josef Beuys: FELT TV

Joseph Beuys, «Felt TV» Shown in TV broadcast 'Identifications', 1970



* CUBITT, Sean, Videography: Video Media as Art and Culture, Basingstoke: Macmillan Education, 1993.

* MEIGH-ANDREWS, Chris, A History of Video Art: Development of Form and Function, Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2006.

* POPPER, Frank, Art of the Electronic Age, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993.

* POPPER, Frank, From Technological to Virtual Art, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.

* RUSH, Michael, New Media in Late 20th-Century Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.

* RUSH, Michael, Video Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 2003.

* SPIELMANN, Yvonne, Video: The Reflexive Medium, Cambridge: Mit Press, 2008.

* YOUGBLOOD, Gene, Expanded Cinema, New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1970.


* Artists’ Video: An International Guide, Lori Zippay (ed), New York: Abbeville Press, 1991.

* Feedback: The Video Data Bank, Kate Horsfield, Lucas Hilderbrand (eds), Philadelphie: Temple University Press, 2006.

* Fluid Screens, Expanded Cinema, Janine Marchessault, Susan Lord (eds), Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

* Illuminating Video : An Essential Guide to Video Art, Doug Hall, Sally Jo Fiffer (eds), New York: Aperture,1990.

* Installation Art, Nicolas de Oliveira, Nicola Oxley, Michael Petry, London: Thames & Hudson, 1997.

* Installation Art in the New Millenium: the Empire of the Senses, Nicolas de Oliveira, Nicola Oxley, Michael Petry, London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

* New Artists Video: A Critical Anthology, Gregory Battcock (ed), New York: Dutton, 1978.

* New Screen Media: Cinema, Art, Narrative, Martin Riser, Andrea Zapp (eds), London: BFI Pub., 2002.

* Video Culture: A Critical Investigation, John G. Hanhardt, Utah: Peregrine Smith Books, 1986.

videoart_the_portapak_live_media_video_performance_early_video_installation.txt · Last modified: 2018/01/08 13:30 by milos-vojtechovsky