'INTERACTIVITY I 1950's - 1980's'
'Alan Kaprow' & Happenings http://www.ubu.com/sound/kaprow.html
'Yoko Ono' - Cut Piece http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lYJ3dPwa2tI; Grapefruit
'E.A.T.' - Nine Evenings http://www.zakros.com/kluver/artengineer.html
'Robert Rauschenberg' - Mud Muse http://www.artelectronicmedia.com/artwork/mud-muse
'Peter Weibel' - Trampling On The Law and other early works http://www.galerie-beckers.de/artists/peter-weibel/
'Valie Export' http://www.valieexport.at/en/werke/vaetimeline/
'Cybernetic Serendipity' http://cyberneticserendipity.net/ in London at the ICA 1968
'Software Show' http://www.fondation-langlois.org/html/e/page.php?NumPage=541 in New York at the Jewish Museum 1970
'Jeffrey Shaw' - Legible City http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61l7Y4MS4aU
'Van Gogh TV' shows an extension of the television into a two way device enabling feedback from the viewer: http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/piazza-virtuale/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pD7RPsB25Bc
'David Rokeby' - Very Nervous System http://www.davidrokeby.com/vns.html
'INTERACTIVITY II 1990's-2000's'
From the 1990's a second generation of interactive artists proliferates. This international group of creators is well represented in the
'Ars Electronica' Prizes and Honourable mentions: http://126.96.36.199/en/archives/prix_einstieg.asp
This is a great place to start to get a grasp on the history of what was created in this era when MAX and later MAX/MSP and PD become a lingua franca of artists working in interactive media.
Rokeby distinguishes between navigable environments and other forms of interactivity, in a clear categorization.
Here's an example of a powerful navigable environment by
'Knowbotic Research' (KR+cF):
Simulationsraum-Mosaik mobiler Datenklänge (smdk) http://188.8.131.52/en/archives/prix_archive/prix_projekt.asp?iProjectID=2482
Another of Rokeby's categorizations is the 'transforming mirror'.
'Camille Utterback's Text Rain' is a good example of this: http://camilleutterback.com/projects/text-rain/
other interactive pioneers
'Paul Garrin's Border Patrol' http://www.davidrokeby.com/border_patrol.html points out the dangers, or at least asks the question “where does interactive”, in the sense of a tracking of audience lead?
In this class, using long term musical projects we contrasted two ways of constructing interactive environments, approaches of direct one to one relations vs. open fluid organic relations where interactivity is not so clear:
'Eric Singer's LEMUR' project
These public projects show ways of including audience in the works:
'Golan Levin Dialtones' http://www.fondation-langlois.org/html/e/page.php?NumPage=229
'Rafael Lozano-Hemmer's Vectorial Elevation' http://www.fondation-langlois.org/html/e/page.php?NumPage=361
Internally self-sufficient works are another aspect of interactive artworks. Here's a great example:
'Max Dean Robotic Chair' http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlXh8RvvcuI
'Markus Popp's Oval' is a pop band that permits the groups's process of composition to be made available to all:
'Ben Rubin's Listening Post' https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dD36IajCz6A is an elegant example of using live data from the net to create a visual and sonic work, that is not interactive in the sense of audience but rather interactive in that it uses live data.
'SOME THINGS TO THINK ABOUT'
control vs. devolution - what kind of agency does the audience have to affect the results of the work?
spectacle / simplicity / technology / cost - what was the purpose of making the work, the experience for the artist, for the audience?
sense engagement - engaging other than the visual or auditory senses can transform the audience's experience with or without extensive use of technology.
system/process vs fixed works - is there a single 'correct' result or can the results ever escape the pre-determined?