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database_cinema

hypermedia narrative to database cinema

Works can either be

a) completely linear but compiled from databases of media objects or b) multi-threaded and navigated by a viewer or b2) by the system itself which determines paths through the work.

A simple example of a) is 'One Word movie':

http://www.onewordmovie.ch/

takes a single google image/word search and compiles the images into a continuing 'video'.

an early example of b1) or interactive narrativity is 'Kino-Automat' by Radůz Činčera and Alfréd Radok, 1967 http://www.kinoautomat.cz/

Most video games pretend to permit interactivity or multiple paths but in reality usually guide the player/viewer along a single path towards a determined outcome, much as described in

b2) above.

'Aspen MovieMap' began as an idea by MIT undergraduate Peter Clay, in collaboration with graduate students Bob Mohl and Michael Naimark. Peter “movemapped” the hallways of MIT in early 1978, as the second videodisc demo made by the Architecture Machine Group. http://www.naimark.net/projects/aspen.html.

Today 'Google Earth' is a worldwide project based on the same concept - navigable media structures based on a database of media objects.

'George Landow' is a hypertext theoretician and the author of 'Hypertext 3.0: Critical Theory and New Media in an Era of Globalization.'

information on hyperlinking of information can be found at:

http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/htov.html

including history and timelines:

http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/systems.html

Hyperlinking of information allows anybody to navigate through AV material or text and create their own narratives based on their own interests. Your youtube search will gather together a sequence of clips that are both suggested by your previous searches and are a result of your own interest.

'William Burroughs & Brion Gysin' pioneered the cutup in the mid-1950's. The cutup opens a space for chance and 'alternative narratives' to arise from an already authored work.

http://www.ubu.com/sound/burroughs.html

for Burroughs on the origin of the cutup: http://ubu.artmob.ca/sound/burroughs_william/Break-Through/Burroughs-William_Origin-and-Theory.mp3

Today 'cutups in real-time“ are available through tools such as the navigable browser on the internet, dvd player's menu systems, a youtube video timeline, etc, etc.


' Concepts essential to authoring media databases are:'

'metadata' - the information attached to a media object that is not the object itself.

'tags'- how the object is described to the public and hence how it can be navigated, either textually or based on image tags.

'textual orthogonality'- keeping the database orderly so similar items can be retrieved when using similar search terms.

'interface' - what is presented on one side to the author as an environment in which to create the work and what sort of interface is made public to navigate the work?


The 'Korsakow interactive story system' for interactive narration has been developed for creating interactive narratives:

http://www.korsakow.com/ksy/

'Luis Bunuel' suggested that most American films followed such strict rules that a database could be setup to create film plots. He called his set of rules a “synoptic table of the American cinema” From his autobiography, My Last Sigh:

“There were several movable columns set up on a large piece of pasteboard: the first for “ambience” (Parisian, western, gangster, etc.), the second for “epochs,” the third for “main characters,” and so on. Altogether there were four or five categories, each with a tab for easy manoeuvrability. What I wanted to do was show that the American cinema was composed along such precise and standardized lines that, thanks to my system, anyone could predict the basic plot of a film simply by lining up a given setting with a particular era, ambience, and character.”

Interactive authoring systems attempt to break through the impasse of the most obvious outcome and create perhaps perpetual films or those with many possible paths.

'David Blair's Wax Web' was the world's first net-based interactive film:

http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/wax/

The Perpetual Art Machine is an online gallery and database of video art and travelling video installation. Using an interactive grid interface, users can search the database by keywords selected by curators, still images of each video, or recently played videos.

http://www.perpetualartmachine.com/

Excellent set of historical articles and links from the folks who make Korsakow

[http://www.a-r-c.ca/annotated-texts/]

'MEDIA WORKS DOCUMENTARY:'

There are a whole series of linked open projects linked through 'MIT's open documentary project':

http://docubase.mit.edu/project/

Also on MIT's site is a sort of history - what they call Moments of Innovation http://momentsofinnovation.mit.edu/ that can be explored through categories - not all of them relevant to us but almost all worth exploring.

'MEDIA WORKS HISTORICAL:'

'Luis Bunuel' suggested that most American films followed such strict rules that a database could be setup to create film plots. He called his set of rules a “synoptic table of the American cinema” From his autobiography, My Last Sigh:

“There were several movable columns set up on a large piece of pasteboard: the first for “ambience” (Parisian, western, gangster, etc.), the second for “epochs,” the third for “main characters,” and so on. Altogether there were four or five categories, each with a tab for easy maneuverability. What I wanted to do was show that the American cinema was composed along such precise and standardized lines that, thanks to my system, anyone could predict the basic plot of a film simply by lining up a given setting with a particular era, ambience, and character.”

'William Burroughs & Brion Gysin' pioneered the cutup in the mid-1950's. The cutup opens a space for chance and 'alternative narratives' to arise from an already authored work. http://www.ubu.com/sound/burroughs.html Burroughs on the origin of the cutup: http://www.ubu.com/sound/burroughs_breakthrough.html

Today 'cutups in realtime” are available through tools such as the navigable browser on the internet, dvd player's menu systems, a youtube video timeline, etc, etc.

'kinoautomat' http://www.kinoautomat.cz/o-kinoautomatu.htm the 1967 classic A/B film where audience members vote on which of two narrative links to follow. By Raduz Cincera and Alfred Radok, 1967 http://www.kinoautomat.cz/

The Hour of the Furnaces 1968 'La hora de los hornos: Notas y testimonios sobre el neocolonialismo, la violencia y la liberación' 260 min Directed by Octavio Getino, Fernando E. Solanas. A 35mm film with explicit instructions about when to stop the film and have 'discussions' with the audience.

'Dr. Who' 1963-present http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_Who long running tv series and an example of vast narrative that inhabits multiple media. Fans actually created home made reconrtructions of lost episodes . See Loose Cannon Productions [http://www.recons.com/].

'Aspen MovieMap' began as an idea by MIT undergraduate Peter Clay, in collaboration with graduate students Bob Mohl and Michael Naimark. Peter “movemapped” the hallways of MIT in early 1978, as the second videodisc demo made by the Architecture Machine Group. http://www.naimark.net/projects/aspen.html. Today Google Earth is a world wide project based on the same concept - navigable media structures based on a database of media objects.

'Wax Web - David Blair' 1993-present http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/wax/ first online hyper-linked feature film

'Switching' Oncotype Productions Denmark 2003 http://www.switching.dk/en/ makes use of DVD specifications to permit never ending drama to evolve by simply clicking on single controller button.

To quote Oncotype from their www site: A film puzzle Switching is a film you can change whilst viewing it - a puzzle that can be arranged in many ways. The only thing you need to do is press ENTER or OK on your remote control when you wish to change the film. Focus on the actors expressions - they frequently give clues for possibilities to change the film. When you click, you change scenes or experience small variations of the story. Switching is built from loops, which means that the scenes repeat in multiple places. In principle this means that there is never an ending. By clicking the TOP MENU or TITLE button on your remote control, you choose when the film finishes.

Switching was specially developed for DVD video. The fascination with interactive expression basically originates in its potential to depict a more fragmented form of reality. The user of this film enters a narrative labyrinth simultaneously unfolding and disrupting the story. A film is now something you can change by touching it. Film has become 'pliable'. There are three elements that explain why Switching departs from the linear form. The first is that the film can be changed at any time. Consequently, the user can jump back and forth in time and location. The second is the fact that interface and content are not divided; in other words, the screen has no buttons to click - the interface is transparent. The film itself is the clickable object. Accordingly, linear control and logic disappear. The third element is the fact that the narrative is structured around a circular system in which everything repeats itself. So it has no ending. The film continues forever in its circular universe.

Contemporary documentary (FAMU example)

http://15yby.com/#/en/stories/ https://vimeo.com/125166198 https://storify.com/

Citizen journalism

http://beta.belive.at/ https://bak.ma/grid/title https://archive.org/search.php?query=doruska%20gezi


'MEDIA WORKS CONTEMPORARY:'

'Korsakow System' http://korsakow.org/ is both a narrative system for designing multi-threaded films and a place where you can watch these features and documentaries.

'Take The Knife' 'first person' interactive youtube linked video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7gWVA3lts4 part of a choose a different ending campaign http://blog.thoughtpick.com/2011/01/choose-a-different-ending-campaign-will-you-take-the-knife.html

'One Word Movie' - Beat Brogle, Philippe Zimmermann http://www.onewordmovie.ch/ simple, elegant example of moving stills using google image database

' Narrative Frictions exhibit' - Marsha Kinder curator http://college.usc.edu/labyrinth/exhibition/frictions.html http://college.usc.edu/labyrinth/exhibition/performing.html the audience 'performs' the narratives by physically walking through this series of linked video installations

'The Weathered Underground' http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BE1MJnCDj58&annotation_id=annotation_660341&feature=i comic book feel mixed animation and film; making simple use of youtube's interactive video annotations

'Bank Run Game' http://www.bankrungame.com/ game leveraged onto mobile device; narrative linked with dexterity from the same production company outbreak http://www.survivetheoutbreak.com/

two choice decision tree 'lacta love at first site' http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-sO2Q7THdi4 very obvious manual instructions for linking using youtube video annotations interactive drama

'Breath With Me' UK http://breathewith.me/about.html mix of live action, audience particpation, interactive game like augmented reality film.

'Metamorphosis Immersive Kafka 2009' - Barnabas Takacs http://panocast.com

Quote from their www site: To validate our concept of interactive Immersive film we produced a short film based on Franz Kafka's famous story, Metamorphosis. The original novel tells the story of a traveling salesman who one day waking up finds himself turned into a insect. While the spherical nature of the camera head is ideally suited to the subject of the film, the key challenge we first faced was to maintain an extra large field of view while excluding everything unwanted in the picture. More specifically, because panoramic video records and maps the entire 360 scene with only a minimal blind spot, production crew, lighting and stuff, even the director needed to remain hidden entirely. To achieve maximal visual coverage and also to create an extremely low- angle view of the set as envisioned from the insect's first person perspective, we devised a remote controlled robotic camera platform that was directed and programmed to interact with the actors.

'The Grotto' http://www.filmejogo.com.br http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyFObVIlFnw First Brazilian Interactive Movie “40 Minutes Of Fun On Youtube” kino-automat like multiple paths (Press Release) – Feb 08, 2010 – After being presented at Rio de Janeiro Film Festival, the largest in Brazil, “The Grotto” has just been released on youtube. With up to 40 minutes long and subtitled in more than 50 languages (youtube translation engine), this interactive movie promises far outweigh its current mark of 21,000 spectators. On youtube the public will have more than 40 interactive options and 11 possible endings to the story. And the viewer can choose, at the beginning of the movie, to watch it from the perspective of of Thomas or his girlfriend, Luiza.

'DubPlate' - UK TV Series http://www.channel4.com/programmes/dubplate-drama actual videos: http://www.myspace.com/dubplatedrama2/videos/all an example of vast narrative; The worlds first interactive television drama, where the viewer decides the plot, is back on Channel 4 for its third series

http://www.google.com/search?q=Dubplate+Drama&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a#q=Dubplate+Drama&hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=fMn&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&prmd=iv&source=univ&tbs=vid:1&tbo=u&ei=kc6dTJawJMrAswaow7HmDg&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&ct=title&resnum=3&ved=0CCUQqwQwAg&fp=4e781b66e30e329a

Networking artists creating 'comic books' via web /some write text, others draw…/ http://www.comixiade.org/site/

'geocaching' http://www.geocaching.com/videos/#cat=cat:newbies&vid=-4VFeYZTTYs

'Highrise' the NFB crossmedia project http://highrise.nfb.ca/blog/ http://highrise.nfb.ca/2011/12/one-millionth-tower-live/

Perry Bard 'The Man With the Movie Camera: The Global Remake' an example of crowdsourced mediamaking. An article in Jump Cut #52 http://www.ejumpcut.org/currentissue/FeldmanVertov/text.html Man with a Movie Camera the Global remake http://dziga.perrybard.net/

Pat O’Neill 'Tracing the Decay of Fiction', a DVD-ROM made as part of ther Labyrinth Project excerpts are on Vimeo http://vimeo.com/8627902

'BARCODE TV', http://codebarre.tv/en/#/en, is a simple and fun interactive site that enables the objects around you to tell their stories

'NFB interactive', http://www.nfb.ca/interactive/, an evolving collection of innovative, interactive stories exploring the world – and our place in it – from uniquely Canadian points of view

'JoDi, Welcome to the Max Payne Library' http://maxpaynelibrary.com/ A site that automatically generates PDF ebooks (also available for print) from the Max Payne game story.

A 'new' novel 'Tristano' written in 1966 becomes unique with multiple printed versions [http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/feb/13/nanni-balestrini-tristano-novel-technology]

Traces of the Sun / photohraphed all year - vizualizations> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZS2FvljQXsk

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperlink_cinema

'In the FAMU Library:'

Gaston Bachelard, Poetika prostoru, Malvern, 2009

Jeffrey Shaw and Peter Weibel, Future Cinema: The Cinematic Imaginary After Film, MIT Press, 2003

Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin (Eds.), Third Person: Authoring and Exploring Vast Narratives, MIT Press, 2009

Rieser, Martin and Zapp, Andrea (Eds.), New Screen Media: Cinema /Ar t/Narrative, bfi Publishing, 2002

Bushoff, Brunhild (Ed.) Developing Interactive Narrative Content, (sagas_sagasnet_reader) High Text, 2005

Janine Marchessault and Susan Lord (Eds.), Fluid Screens, Expanded Cinema (Digital Futures), U. of Toronto Press, 2008

George Landow, Hypermedia 3.0, Critical Theory and New Media in an Era of Globalization, John Hopkins University Press, 2006

Third Person Authoring and Exploring Vast Narratives, Noah Wardip-Fruin (editor)

Database Aesthetics Art in the Age of Information Overflow, Victoria Vesna (editor)

'Available as PDF's:'

Hilf, William Homer, Beginning, Middle and End – Not Necessarily in that Order

Ledes, Richard, The Challenges of Building Interactive Narratives

Shen, Edward, Storied Navigation (MIT dissertation)

Smith, Michael Aaron, Transmedia Storytelling in Television 2.0, Strategies for Developing Television Narratives Across Media Platforms

Brooks, Kevin Michael, Metalinear Cinematic Narrative: Theory, Process, and Tool (MIT dissertation)

database_cinema.txt · Last modified: 2020/05/13 14:16 by eric-rosenzveig